We are moving!
The latin grammar pages are moving. Visit me at http://econrad.net for more information. The pages hosted at math.ohio-state.edu (or math.osu.edu) won't be maintained and may expire at any time.
Welcome to the Latin grammar pages. Here you will find
paradigms for the
five noun declensions and four verb conjugations, as well as examples
number of irregularities. (Yes, pronouns are declined
as well.) And examples -- yes lots of examples to help
you in your study of Latin grammar and syntax.
Table of Contents
(proemium). A few general
comments followed by some important
remarks about the notation used.
(pronuntiatio Latina). Classical Latin,
ecclesiastical (church) Latin, Anglo-Latin, and perhaps others.
- Parts of speech (partes
- Nouns (nomina)
- Verb conjugation
If you think the four (or five or six) regular verb conjugations are
different, you might want to take a look at how similar they
If you have that suspicion that they are more alike than different,
this is the page for you!
- First conjugation or -âre
- Second conjugation or -êre
- Third conjugation or -ere verbs
- Fourth conjugation or -îre
- Irregular verbs
a modest collection at best...
Other Latin Resources. (Links)
Occasionally Asked Questions. (OAQ)
These links change faster than I can maintain them. Let me know of any
errors. (All links checked on September 25, 2007.)
- Latin Texts and English translations. Please use
these as a tool to learn, and not as a tool to cheat on Latin homework.
online resources, Electronic Text Center, University of
Virginia. (Ovid's Metamorphoses and
Boethius' Consolatio Philosophiae in both Latin and
history and archaeology, Bruce J. Butterfield.
(English translations of Caesar's De Bello Gallico
and Tacitus' History of Rome and links to ancient
- The Euler
Archive. An online archive of the works of Leonhard Euler
(mathematician and physicist, 1707-1783). Most of the works
collected were written in Latin.
- Whitaker's Words, a Latin-to-English
(Basically it's a cleverly written ASCII text file which is formatted
for easy use with computer programs for Latin grammar analysis and aid
translation from Latin to English.)
resources for Greek and Latin classics: http://www.loc.gov/rr/main/alcove9/classics.html.
Greenough's New Latin Grammar [Obsolete link]
(Better links to this textbook:
[AG1] The "Perseus" project version: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0001
[AG2] Searchable version provided by Professor William Harris of
Middlebury College: http://www.middlebury.edu/~harris/AG_1.html
Sanae Mentis. Latin study links.
Latina. The Latin edition of Wikipedia.
Florilegium (lots of links! But unfortunately
you'll need to paste them into your browser's location window.)
(Online Latin and Greek
language learning resources.)
Tests Various online
grammar and vocabulary tests.
- Free commercial sites
and Latin. Maintained by a company that does
translations for a fee, these pages are mainly useful to find links to
YourDictionary.com ® (Dictionaries and grammar
forecasts in Latin (mostly), courtesy of The Weather
Underground, Inc. Reasonably fast.
- Google ® directories Latin
resources list (Directory reorganization tends to change
these links faster than I maintain them! :-)
Yahoo! ® (Latin resources list.) Reasonably
- Online radio in Latin (from Finland, of course!) http://www.yleradio1.fi/nuntii/
- Hines, Welch and Hopkinson. Our Latin
- Moreland and Fleischer. Latin: An
- Humez and Humez. Latina pro populo.
- Wilson. Essentials of Latin Grammar.
- Goldman and Szymanski. Latin Grammar
for Students of English.
- Prior and Wohlberg. 501 Latin Verbs.
- Traupman. The New College Latin and
- Guralnik, editor. Webster's New World
College Edition, 1968.
- Morris, editor. The American Heritage
College Edition, 1981.
- Lewis and Short. A Latin Dictionary.
- J. Morwood. A dictionary of Latin words
- Q: Is there a FAQ?
A: Yes, in a manner of speaking. [faq.html]
- Q: When are you going to finish the section on adjectives
(or adverbs or compounds or ...)?
A: I do this both for fun and personal edification. Since I'm not
making a profit and I'm not getting course credit, I'm not offering a
timetable. But feel free to continue asking. And if
you know of a site which does a good job of covering the missing
material, please send me the URL.
- Q: Could you help me translate this short snippet from
Latin into English?
A: I'll try to help. But I expect to you to show me some
work... (Send me email.)
- Q: Will you translate this long passage from Caesar (or
A: Choose one:
- No. I really wish I had that much free time.
- No. You'll learn more if you do your own
- No. There are much better translations in the
- What's that, you say? You'll pay me US$10.00
per word + US$1000.00 per hour? And you'll give me a
one-month all-expenses-paid vacation to Europe? And all this
in advance? Hmmm... (Send me email, with credit and
- Q: Do you have an answer key to (whatever)?
- Q: Where can I find an answer key to (whatever)?
A: Try contacting the publisher or searching the online auction sites.
- Q: Where are the (expletive deleted)
A1: (flippant - classical) Vergil didn't use macrons.
A2: (flippant - mathematical) Jacobi didn't use macrons. But
he did use the letter J.
A3: (technical) At the time I prepared this, there was no portable
text-based way of writing macrons in html.
A4: (revised technical) It would be too much trouble to put them in
- Q: My teacher says Caesar is pronounced "Kai'-sar", my
priest says "Chay'-sar" and my parents say "See'-zer". Who's
A: It depends. If you want a good approximation of ancient
Roman pronunciation, then your teacher is correct. For
liturgical purposes, your priest is correct. If you're
talking about Caesar in English, then your parents are correct.
- Q: Why do academic types always answer a simple question
with "It depends."?
A: It depends.
- Q: Why do academic types always answer a question with a
A: Why shouldn't they?
- Q: How many academic types does it take to change a light
A: Choose one:
- It depends on the study that you consult.
- What kind of lightbulb?
- One to measure the household voltage, one to determine
the alternating current frequency, one to determine the right kind of
lightbulb based on the voltage and frequency, three to argue over the
wattage, one to get to get a graduate assistant to buy the lightbulb,
one to get a graduate assistant to put the lightbulb in the socket,
and, of course, three to turn the building around. One more
is needed to hire the research assistant needed to count the number of
academic types required, and yet another is needed to ponder the
underlying combinatorial paradox.
- Q: How many Latin teachers does it take to change a light
A: Light bulbs weren't invented in Roman times.
- Q: When will the Latin version of this OAQ be ready?
A: See question (2).
- Q: What's an OAQ?
A: See the section heading.
Latin version (Versio Latina)
||Q: Ubi sunt OAQes?
R: Hoc vide.
||Q: Ubi sunt FAQes?
R: Hoc vide.
||Q: Ubi sunt ioci orbum lucis?
R: Hoc vide: http://www.google.com/search?q=lightbulb+jokes.
Et hic: http://www.florilegium.org/files/UNCAT/jokes-msg.html]
||Q: Ubi sunt tabulae additionum multiplicationumque?
R: [Imperfecti Sunt!] Hic:
||Q: Ubi est numerus nihil?
R: Insanus esne? Quae notio barbara, probabiliter
Indica! Nos Romani sapientores sumus! Nihil [est]
Thanks to those who have reported errors in these pages.
A special mention in this regard goes to Perry Rapp.
Also a tip of the hat to Russell Ham for catching the error
(now fixed) in the page title!
(Alas, Russell, it was merely an oversight on my part and not
More error corrections -- thanks to Konstantin Rybakov, Mark Brader, Dorota
Patricia Schneider, David Wilkinson, Celia King, G. Leo Sahakian,
Gaylard, Alicia Alexander, Michael Newman, Paul Provence, Joel
Tigran Aivazian, John Moore, Robert Faulkner, Reinhard Gruhl (for
setting me straight about plebs), Matthew Kostovny, Andrew
Usher, E. B. Connelly, Dennis Lubbs, Mary Grady,
Frankie correctly pointed out that what I called the Past Tense
properly be called the Imperfect Tense. I have made the
changes to the verb conjugation paradigms and added a few words of
that I hope will help those of us who speak English to understand the
distinction between Imperfect and Perfect. (Alas! Our
to have made a royal mess of this part of the English tense
And thanks to Mark Mandel who believes strongly that the distinction
between "forbearance" and "forebears" should be maintained in the
spelling of the first syllable. And even though OED may
sloppiness on my part, Mark, I do agree with you. Alas! I
Marco Cimarosti found one instance where I talked about "person" rather
than "declension". (1000 apologies and 1001
Stephan's keen eye found an instance of a sentence missing its verb.
I cannot blame the gods for this lacuna in the text.)
And Louise Cole found a problem in the evening.
In addition to those who have alerted me to errors, these pages have
been greatly improved by the many suggestions that I have received over
the years. Thanks to Eduard Eberbach for some wonderful
links to guides to ecclesiatical Latin pronunciation.
(The web is not eternal -- some of those links have passed on.)
For suggestions for the phrases page, thanks be to Graham Dugas, Alex,
Anne Gilliland, Katie and "wowNNNN".
(A few more dicta that I do intend to add are still in an email
folder...) And thanks to Randy Lewis for noting that the Praeneste Fibula
(the source of the old Latin inscription Manios med fhefhaked Numasioi)
is now generally believed to be a nineteenth century fake. (And
yes, it is dicta [nominative plural of dictum], and not
Thanks and a tip of the hat to Teemu Peltonen for directing me
to the YLE (Finland) Latin internet radio site.
(Log date: March 15, 2010) The Internet Archive WayBack
Engine has its first version of this page archived with a date of
October 16, 1997. The page itself says "Last updated: Tuesday,
September 16, 1997". So these pages have been present on the web
for over twelve years.
Mail comments, criticisms, corrections (including
misspellings), puzzles and
flames to Eric
(Back to Eric's home page!)
Wed Feb 9 13:06:00 EST 2011